The Byzantine style was born in the fourth century with the beginning of the emergence and development of a new state, formed on the basis of the Eastern Roman Empire. At the stage of formation, it absorbed the traditions of Hellenism and Christian principles, with an admixture of elements of Middle Eastern religious movements. Byzantium strove to surpass Rome in everything, which was also evident in architecture. The majestic luxurious buildings of cult significance became dominants in the urban planning of Byzantium. Some of the most striking examples are the Temple of Sophia of Constantinople in Istanbul and the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. The main distinguishing feature in temple building is the painted and gilded domes, which were located in the central part of the building. The exterior was made of marble and natural stone. High ceilings, large and spacious rooms are impressive, in which the power of the architectural structure is felt.
The furniture is luxurious and oversaturated with decorations. In its manufacture, the main emphasis was placed on materials such as gold, bone, precious gems. In the ornament borrowed from the Persians, excessive patterning is preserved, simple plant motifs of young shoots of the vine merge with animals and birds, enclosed in geometric shapes of a polygon and an oval or in a long curved acanthus leaf. The prevailing color range consists of vibrant greens, reds, oranges, violets and purples.
At the end of the 19th century in the Russian Empire, the Byzantine style began to be widely used in architecture and art, over time it received the name Russian-Byzantine. Hemispherical domes, directed upward, unplastered masonry alternates with two-tone brick. All this was canonically established during the construction of churches and cathedrals, in which the entire stylistic component of Old Russian and Byzantine culture has been preserved today.
In artistic forging, stylistics is not often used, due to a number of features and complexity of metal processing techniques. For the implementation of projects in this direction, a lot of chasing, braces, punching and notches are carried out, since there are many small specific details in it. Fences or decorative items are a reflection of a highly artistic approach to architectural solutions. The ornament is very dense, full of complex rectilinear shapes and spirals. Here, an ornate pattern is intertwined with repetitions of individual combinations in strict symmetry. Of the significant examples, one can note the bars that adorn the windows of the Kremlin.